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Friction  2022, Vol. 10 Issue (2): 179-199    doi: 10.1007/s40544-020-0474-0
Review Article     
Applications of sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy in friction interface
Zhifeng LIU1,3,Mengmeng LIU1,Caixia ZHANG1,3,*(),Hongyan CHU1,3,Liran MA2,*(),Qiang CHENG1,3,Hongyun CAI3,Junmin CHEN3
1 Institute of Advanced Manufacturing and Intelligent Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3 Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
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Abstract  

Sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is a second-order nonlinear optical spectroscopy technique. Owing to its interfacial selectivity, SFG vibrational spectroscopy can provide interfacial molecular information, such as molecular orientations and order, which can be obtained directly, or molecular density, which can be acquired indirectly. Interfacial molecular behaviors are considered the basic factors for determining the tribological properties of surfaces. Therefore, owing to its ability to detect the molecular behavior in buried interfaces in situ and in real time, SFG vibrational spectroscopy has become one of the most appealing technologies for characterizing mechanisms at friction interfaces. This paper briefly introduces the development of SFG vibrational spectroscopy and the essential theoretical background, focusing on its application in friction and lubrication interfaces, including film-based, complex oil-based, and water-based lubricating systems. Real-time detection using SFG promotes the nondestructive investigation of molecular structures of friction interfaces in situ with submonolayer interface sensitivity, enabling the investigation of friction mechanisms. This review provides guidance on using SFG to conduct friction analysis, thereby widening the applicability of SFG vibrational spectroscopy.



Key wordsSFG vibrational spectroscopy      film-based lubricating systems      complex oil-based lubricating systems      water-based lubricating systems     
Received: 05 June 2020      Published: 17 January 2022
Fund:  National Natural Science Foundation of China(51705010);Beijing Natural Science Foundation(3192003);General Project of Science and Technology Plan from Beijing Educational Committee(KM201810005013);Tribology Science Fund of State Key Laboratory of Tribology(STLEKF16A02)
Corresponding Authors: Caixia ZHANG,Liran MA     E-mail: zhang-cx15@bjut.edu.cn;maliran@tsinghua.edu.cn
About author: Zhifeng LIU. He received his Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from Northeastern University, Shenyang, China. He is the team leader of the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing and Intelligent Technology, Beijing University of Technology. His research interests include heavy-duty machine tool, superlubricity, robot, and assembly technology.|Mengmeng LIU. She received her B.S. degree from Applied Technology College of Soochow University, China. She is currently a graduate student at the Beijing University of Technology, China. Her research interests include superlubricity and the control of smart surface and interface.|Caixia ZHANG. She received her Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering in 2015 from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. After then, she joined Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Beijing University of Technology. Her research interests include biotribology, superlubricity, and surface and interface analysis.|Hongyan CHU. She received her Ph.D. degree in mechanical design and theory in 2003 from Beijing University of Technology. Now she works in the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing and Intelligent Technology, Beijing University of Technology. Her research interests include intelligent manufacturing technology, surface and friction characteristics, and contact dynamics of viscoelastic material.|Liran MA. She received her Ph.D. degree in 2010 in the Department of Precision Instrument and Mechanology from Tsinghua University, China. Following a postdoctoral period at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, she is now working as an associate professor in the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University. Her interests in tribology have ranged from aqueous lubrication and hydration lubrication to the liquid/solid interface properties. She was elected as the Young Chang Jiang Scholar in 2015. Her current research interests are tribology and surface & interface science. She has published over 60 papers indexed by SCI.|Qiang CHENG. He is a professor at the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing and Intelligent Technology, Beijing University of Technology. He received his Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering in 2009 from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. His research interests include wear modelling and validation, interface engineering, precision retaining ability design, etc.|Hongyun CAI. He received his B.S. degree from Anhui Agricultural University, China, in 2018. He is currently a graduate student at the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing and Intelligent Technology, Beijing University of Technology, China. His research interests include nanotribology and molecular dynamics simulation.|Junmin CHEN. He received his B.S. degree from the Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, China, in 2019. He is currently a graduate student at the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing and Intelligent Technology, Beijing University of Technology, China. His research interests include biotribology, superlubricity, surface and interface analysis, and triboelectric nanogenerator.
Cite this article:

Zhifeng LIU,Mengmeng LIU,Caixia ZHANG,Hongyan CHU,Liran MA,Qiang CHENG,Hongyun CAI,Junmin CHEN. Applications of sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy in friction interface. Friction, 2022, 10(2): 179-199.

URL:

http://friction.tsinghuajournals.com/10.1007/s40544-020-0474-0     OR     http://friction.tsinghuajournals.com/Y2022/V10/I2/179

Fig. 1 (a) Co-propagating geometry for SFG at an interface, (b) counter-propagating geometry for SFG at an interface, (c) SFG energy level diagram, and (d) molecular orientation of C-CH3 group.
Fig. 2 Experimental configurations of SFG vibrational spectroscopy in different lubricating systems. (a) Film-based lubricating system (where I denotes patches of organic film transferred to counterface in friction, II denotes orientation changes of interface molecules in friction, and III denotes disorder of interfacial molecules in friction); (b) complex oil-based lubricating system (I denotes interaction between base oil and friction modifier molecules and II denotes interaction between different friction modifier molecules); and (c) water- based lubricating system (I represents the lubrication effect of the water layer and II represents the effect of ions on water lubrication).
59], ? American Chemical Society 2006; Ref. [60], ? American Chemical Society 2005. (a) Incomplete recovery of SFG signal after stress release; (b) confirmation of organic film patch transfer; and (c) patches related to monolayer transferred to counterface during viscoelastic process.
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Fig. 3 Analysis of contact and stress-induced transfer of organic film patches using SFG vibrational spectroscopy. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [59], ? American Chemical Society 2006; Ref. [60], ? American Chemical Society 2005. (a) Incomplete recovery of SFG signal after stress release; (b) confirmation of organic film patch transfer; and (c) patches related to monolayer transferred to counterface during viscoelastic process.
51], ? American Chemical Society 2003; Ref. [65], ? American Chemical Society 2007. (a) Corresponding experimental configuration; (b) orientation change in terminal group of molecule; and (c) change in molecular orientation due to interpenetration.
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Fig. 4 Analysis of contact-and-stress-induced molecular orientation changes at interface via SFG vibrational spectroscopy. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [51], ? American Chemical Society 2003; Ref. [65], ? American Chemical Society 2007. (a) Corresponding experimental configuration; (b) orientation change in terminal group of molecule; and (c) change in molecular orientation due to interpenetration.
68], ? American Chemical Society 2014; Ref. [69], ? American Chemical Society 2014. (a) Corresponding experimental configuration; (b) self-healing mechanism of defects induced by stress; and (c) non-healing of defects induced by variable force.
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Fig. 5 Analysis of stress-induced molecular ordering changes at an interface via SFG vibrational spectroscopy. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [68], ? American Chemical Society 2014; Ref. [69], ? American Chemical Society 2014. (a) Corresponding experimental configuration; (b) self-healing mechanism of defects induced by stress; and (c) non-healing of defects induced by variable force.
28], ?American Chemical Society 2016; Ref. [74], ? Springer Science Business Media New York 2016; Ref. [81], ? American Chemical Society 2014. (a) Experimental configuration; (b) effect of friction modifier under static and dynamic conditions; (c) effect of friction modifier’s molecular structure; and (d) effect of tilt angle of friction modifier molecule.
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Fig. 6 Analysis of interfacial structures regulated by interaction between base oil and friction modifier molecules using SFG vibrational spectroscopy. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [28], ?American Chemical Society 2016; Ref. [74], ? Springer Science Business Media New York 2016; Ref. [81], ? American Chemical Society 2014. (a) Experimental configuration; (b) effect of friction modifier under static and dynamic conditions; (c) effect of friction modifier’s molecular structure; and (d) effect of tilt angle of friction modifier molecule.
82], ? The Author(s) 2016; Ref. [83], ? The Author(s) 2020. (a) Experimental configuration; (b) different interface structures of single and mixed modifier systems at the interface; and (c) formation of mixed modifier complex at the interface.
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Fig. 7 Analysis of interfacial structures regulated by interaction between different friction modifier molecules via SFG vibrational spectroscopy. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [82], ? The Author(s) 2016; Ref. [83], ? The Author(s) 2020. (a) Experimental configuration; (b) different interface structures of single and mixed modifier systems at the interface; and (c) formation of mixed modifier complex at the interface.
27], ? American Institute of Physics 2009; Ref. [86], ? The Authors 2016; Ref. [87], ? American Chemical Society 2013; Ref. [89], ? American Chemical Society 2018; Ref. [90], the PCCP Owner Societies 2008. (a) Existence of water layer between two friction pairs proven by appearance of OH stretching region in SFG spectra; (b) effect of surface hydrogen bonding environment; and (c) characteristics of electrostatic force controlled by the surface charge.
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Fig. 8 Lubrication effect of water layer using SFG vibrational spectroscopy. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [27], ? American Institute of Physics 2009; Ref. [86], ? The Authors 2016; Ref. [87], ? American Chemical Society 2013; Ref. [89], ? American Chemical Society 2018; Ref. [90], the PCCP Owner Societies 2008. (a) Existence of water layer between two friction pairs proven by appearance of OH stretching region in SFG spectra; (b) effect of surface hydrogen bonding environment; and (c) characteristics of electrostatic force controlled by the surface charge.
108], ? American Chemical Society 2018; Ref. [112], ? American Chemical Society 2019; Ref. [113], ? American Chemical Society 2013; Ref. [115], ? Biophysical Society 2017. (a) Schematic diagram of Hofmeister series and different properties of kosmotropes and chaotropes in aqueous solution; (b) perturbation to interfacial hydrogen bond environment by ions; and (c) effect of ions on molecular chains.
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Fig. 9 Effect of ions on water lubrication analyzed via SFG vibrational spectroscopy. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [108], ? American Chemical Society 2018; Ref. [112], ? American Chemical Society 2019; Ref. [113], ? American Chemical Society 2013; Ref. [115], ? Biophysical Society 2017. (a) Schematic diagram of Hofmeister series and different properties of kosmotropes and chaotropes in aqueous solution; (b) perturbation to interfacial hydrogen bond environment by ions; and (c) effect of ions on molecular chains.
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